Der Browser den Sie verwenden ist sehr alt.

Wir können daher nicht sicherstellen, dass jede Funktion (Gestaltung, Bilder und zusätzliche Funktionen) dieser Internetseite im vollen Umfang zur Verfügung steht. Bitte nutzen Sie eine aktuellere Browserversion.
Wir bitten um Ihr Verständnis.
Startseite > Patienten und Eltern > Patienten-/Elternschulungen > Neonataler Drogenentzug > Drogen & Entzug > Tiermodell zum NAS > Publikationen


Ahtee L, Attila LM, Carlson KR, Haikala H.
Changes in brain monoamine metabolism during withdrawal from chronic oral self-administration of morphine and in response to a morphine challenge in the withdrawn state.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther 249:303-310.

Anderson GM, Hoder EL, Shaywitz BA, Cohen DJ. 1985.
Neurotransmitter precursors and metabolites in CSF of human neonates.
Dev Med Child Neurol 27:207-214.

Aston-Jones G, Delfs JM, Druhan J, Zhu Y.
The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. A target site for noradrenergic actions in opiate withdrawal.
Ann N Y Acad Sci 877:486-498.

Aston-Jones G, Harris GC.
Brain substrates for increased drug seeking during protracted withdrawal.
Neuropharmacology 47(Suppl 1):167-179.

Aston-Jones G, Hirata H, Akaoka H.
Local opiate withdrawal in locus coeruleus in vivo.
Brain Res 765:331-336

Bailey C, Connor M. 2005.
Opioids: Cellular mechanisms of tolerance and physical dependence.
Curr Opin Pharmacol 5:60-68.

Barr GA, Wang S. 1992.
Tolerance and withdrawal to chronic morphine treatment in the week-old rat pup.
Eur J Pharmacol 215:35-42.

Barr GA, Zmitrovich A, Hamowy AS, Yan P, Liu R, Wang S, Hutchings DE.1998.
Neonatal withdrawal following pre- and postnatal exposure to methadone in the rat.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav 60:97-104.

Beckmann AM, Matsumoto I, Wilce PA. 1995.
Immediate early gene expression during morphine withdrawal.
Neuropharmacology 34:1183-1189.

Bell JA, Beglan CL.
Co-treatment with MK-801 potentiates naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal in the isolated spinal cord of the neonatal rat.
Eur J Pharmacol 294:297-301

Bell JA, Beglan CL.
MK-801 blocks the expression but not the development of tolerance to morphine in the isolated spinal cord of the neonatal rat.
Eur J Pharmacol 294:289-296.

Bell, JA, Kimes, AS, London, ED.
Increased glucose utilization in superficial layers of the rat spinal dorsal horn during precipitated morphine withdrawal.
Eur J Pharmacol 150:171-174.

Benavides M, Laorden ML, Garcia-Borron JC, Milanes MV.
Regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase levels and activity and Fos expression during opioid withdrawal in the hypothalamic PVN and medulla oblongata catecholaminergic cell groups innervating the PVN.
Eur J Neurosci 17:103-112.

Benavides M, Laorden ML, Milanes MV.
Involvement of 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase in regulation of Fos expression and tyrosine hydroxylase levels during morphine withdrawal in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and medulla oblongata catecholaminergic cell groups.
J Neurochem 92:246-254.

Blasig J, Herz A, Reinhold K, Zieglgansberger S.
Development of physical dependence on morphine in respect to time and dosage and quantification of the precipitated withdrawal syndrome in rats.
Psychopharmacology 33:133-139.

Bronson ME, Sparber SB.
Evidence of single dose opioid dependence in 12- to 14-day old chicken embryos.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav 34:705-709.

Bronson ME, Sparber SS.
Profile of opioid withdrawal in newly hatched chickens.
NIDA Res Monogr 95:495-496.

Brooks AN, Currie IS, Gibson F, Thomas GB.
Neuroendocrine regulation of sheep fetuses.
J Reprod Fertil Suppl. 45:69-84.

Bozarth M.A
. 1994.
Physical dependence produced by central morphine infusions: An anatomical mapping study.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev 18:373–383.

Ceger P, Kuhn CM. 2000.
Opiate withdrawal in the neonatal rat: Relationship to duration of treatment and naloxone dose.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) 150:253-259.

Charney SD, Redmind, E Jr., Galloway MP, Kleber, HD, Heninger, GR, Murberg, M, Roth, RH. 1984.
Naltrexone precipitated opiate withdrawal in methadone addicted human subjects: Evidence for noradrengeric hyperactivity.
Life Sci 35:1263-1272.

Clouet DH, Iwatsubo K.
Mechanisms of tolerance to and dependence on narcotic analgesic drugs.
Annu Rev Pharmacol 15:49-71.

Couceyro P, Douglass J.
Precipitated morphine withdrawal stimulates multiple activator protein-1 signaling pathways in rat brain.
Mol Pharmacol 47:29-39.

Craft JB Jr, Bolan JC, Coaldrake LA, Mondino M, Mazel P, Gilman RM, Shokes LK, Woolf WA.
The maternal and fetal cardiovascular effects of epidural morphine in the sheep model.
Am J Obstet Gynecol 142:835-839.

Crawley JN, Laverty R, Roth RH.
Clonidine reversal of increased norepinephrine metabolite levels during morphine withdrawal.
Eur J Pharmacol 57:247-250.

Cuttler L, Egli CA, Styne DM, Kaplan SL, Grumbach MM.
Hormone ontogeny in the ovine fetus. XVIII. The effect of an opioid antagonist on luteinizing hormone secretion.
Endocrinology 116:1997-2002.

Delfs JM, Zhu Y, Druhan JP, Aston-Jones G.
Noradrenaline in the ventral forebrain is critical for opiate withdrawal-induced aversion.
Nature 403:430-434.

De Vries TJ, Shippenberg TS.
Neural systems underlying opiate addiction.
J Neurosci 22:3321-3325.

Fanselow MS, Cramer CP.
The ontogeny of opiate tolerance and withdrawal in infant rats.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav 31:431-438.

Fitzgerald LW, Ortiz J, Hamedani AG, Nestler EJ.
Drugs of abuse and stress increase the expression of GluR1 and NMDAR1 glutamate receptor subunits in the rat ventral tegmental area: Common adaptations among cross-sensitizing agents.
J Neurosci 16:274-282.

Frankel PS, Harlan RE, Garcia MM.
Chronic administration of morphine alters immediate-early gene expression in the forebrain of post-dependent rats.
Brain Res 835:204-212.

Freedman JE, Aghajanian GK.
Opiate and alpha 2-adrenoceptor responses of rat amygdaloid neurons: Co-localization and interactions during withdrawal.
J Neurosci 5:3016-3024.

Fuentealba, J.A., Forray, M.I., and Gysling, K.
Chronic morphine treatment and withdrawal increase extracellular levels of norepinephrine in the rat bed nucleus of the stria terminalis,
J Neurochem 75:741-748.

Fuertes G, Laorden ML, Milanes MV.
Noradrenergic and dopaminergic activity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus after naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal.
Neuroendocrinology 71:60-67.

Funada M, Hara C, Wada K.
Involvement of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor subtype 1 in morphine withdrawal regulation of the brain noradrenergic system.
Eur J Pharmacol 430:277-281.

Fundytus ME, Coderre TJ.
Attenuation of precipitated morphine withdrawal symptoms by acute i.c.v. administration of a group II mGluR agonist.
Br J Pharmacol 121:511-514.

Geary II, WA, Wooten GF.
Similar functional anatomy of spontaneous and precipitated morphine withdrawal.
Brain Res 334:183-186.

Georges F, Stinus L, Le Moine C.
Mapping of c-Fos gene expression in the brain during morphine dependence and precipitated withdrawal, and phenotypic identification of the striatal neurons involved.
Eur J Neurosci 12:4475-4486.

Gold, MS, Redmond, DE Jr, Kleber, HD. 1978.
Clonidine blocks acute opiate withdrawal symptoms.
Lancet 2:599-602.

Gray RE, Munks MW, Haynes RR, Olsen GD. 2001.
Mu opioid receptor efficacy and potency of morphine-6-glucuronide in neonatal guinea pig brainstem membranes: Comparison with transfected CHO cells.
Brain Res Bull 54:499-505.

Harris AC, Gewirtz JC. 2005.
Acute opioid dependence: Characterizing the early adaptations underlying drug withdrawal.
Psychopharmacology 178:353-366.

Hasan SU, Pinsky C, Cates DB, Nowaczyk BJ, Gibson DA, Rigatto H. 1990.
The effects of naloxone on the changes in breathing and behavior induced by morphine in the foetal sheep.
J Dev Physiol 14:171-179.

Hayward MD, Duman RS, Nestler EJ.
Induction of the c-Fos proto-oncogene during opiate withdrawal in the locus coeruleus and other regions of rat brain.
Brain Res 525:256-266.

Hunter MA, Vangelisti GR, Olsen GD.
Chronic intermittent in utero exposure to morphine: Effects on respiratory control in the neonatal guinea pig.
Biol Neonate 72:293-304.

Jackson A, Mead AN, Stephens DN. 2000.
Behavioural effects of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate-receptor antagonists and their relevance to substance abuse.
Pharmacol Ther 88:59-76.

Jakowec MW, Fox AJ, Martin LJ, Kalb RG.
Quantitative and qualitative changes in AMPA receptor expression during spinal cord development.
Neuroscience 67:893-907.

Jakowec MW, Yen L, Kalb RG. 1995b.
In situ hybridization analysis of AMPA receptor subunit gene expression in the developing rat spinal cord.
Neuroscience 67:909-920.

Jang CG, Rockhold RW, Ho IK. 2000.
An autoradiographic study of (3H)AMPA receptor binding and in situ hybridization of AMPA sensitive glutamate receptor A (GluR-A) subunits following morphine withdrawal in the rat brain.
Brain Res Bull 52:217-221.

Jones KL, Barr GA. 1995.
Ontogeny of morphine withdrawal in the rat.
Behav Neurosci 109:1189-1198.

Jones KL, Barr GA. 2001.
Injections of an opioid antagonist into the locus coeruleus and periaqueductal gray but not the amygdala precipitates morphine withdrawal in the 7-day-old rat.
Synapse 39:139-151.

Kelsey JE, Aranow JS, Matthews RT. 1990.
Context-specific morphine withdrawal in rats: Duration and effects of clonidine.
Behav Neurosci 104:704-710.

Kest B, McLemore G, Kao B, Inturrisi CE. 1997.
The competitive alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate receptor antagonist LY293558 attenuates and reverses analgesic tolerance to morphine but not to delta or kappa opioids.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther 283:1249-1255.

Kimes AS, Bell JA, London ED. 1990.
Clonidine attenuates increased brain glucose metabolism during naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal.
Neuroscience 34:633-644.

Kimes AS, Maldonado R, Ambrosio E, Koob GF, London ED. 1998.
Cerebral glucose metabolism during opioid withdrawal following methylnaloxonium injection into the locus coeruleus.
Brain Res 814:1-12.

Koob GF. 1992.
Drugs of abuse: Anatomy, pharmacology and function of reward pathways.
Trends Pharmacol Sci 13:177-184.

Koob GF, Bloom FE. 1988.
Cellular and molecular mechanisms of drug dependence.
Science 242:715-723.

Koob GF, Maldonado R, Stinus L. 1992.
Neural substrates of opiate withdrawal.
Trends Neurosci 15:186-191.

Kraus MA, Piper JM, Kornetsky C. 1996.
Naloxone alters the local metabolic rate for glucose in discrete brain regions associated with opiate withdrawal.
Brain Res 724:33-40.

Laorden ML, Nunez C, Almela P, Milanes MV. 2002.
Morphine withdrawal-induced c-Fos expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus is dependent on the activation of catecholaminergic neurones.
J Neurochem 83:132-140.

Le Guen S, Gestreau C, Besson JM. 2003.
Morphine withdrawal precipitated by specific mu, delta or kappa opioid receptor antagonists: A c-Fos protein study in the rat central nervous system.
Eur J Neurosci 17:2425-2437.

Little PJ, Price RR, Hinton RK, Kuhn CM.
Role of noradrenergic hyperactivity in neonatal opiate abstinence.
Drug Alcohol Depend 41:47-54.

Maeda T, Kishioka S, Inoue N, Shimizu N, Fukazawa Y, Ozaki M, Yamamoto H. 2002.
Naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal elicits increases in c-Fos mRNA expression in restricted regions of the infant rat brain.
Jpn J Pharmacol 90:270-275.

Maharajan P, Prencipe R, Di Francesco P, Paino G, Ravagnan G, Maharajan V. 2000.
Maternal morphine alters parvalbumin immunoreactivity patterns in neonatal mouse brain.
Synapse 35:265-271.

Maldonado R. 1997.
Participation of noradrenergic pathways in the expression of opiate withdrawal: Biochemical and pharmacological evidence.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev 1:91-104.

Maldonado R, Negus S, Koob GF. 1992.
Precipitation of morphine withdrawal syndrome in rats by administration of mu-, delta- and kappa-selective opioid antagonists.
Neuropharmacology 31:1231-1241.

Mansour A, Khachaturian H, Lewis ME, Akil H, Watson SJ. 1988.
Anatomy of CNS opioid receptors.
Trends Neurosci 11:308-314.

Marsh DF, Hatch DJ, Fitzgerald M. 1997.
Opioid systems and the newborn. Br J Anaesth 79:787-795.

Matsuda AY, Olsen GD. 2001.
Chronic in utero morphine exposure alters µ-agonist stimulated (35S)-GTP?S binding in neonatal and juvenile guinea pig brainstem regions associated with breathing control.
Neurotoxicol Teratol 23:413-419.

Mahanty NK, Sah P. 1998.
Calcium-permeable AMPA receptors mediate long-term potentiation in interneurons in the amygdala.
Nature 394:683-687.

McLemore GL, Kest B, Inturrisi CE.
The effects of LY293558, an AMPA receptor antagonist, on acute and chronic morphine dependence.
Brain Res 778:120-126.

McPhie AA, Barr GA. 2000.
The role of opioid receptors in morphine withdrawal in the infant rat.
Brain Res Dev Brain Res 124:73-80.

Murphey LJ, Olsen GD. 1994a.
Diffusion of morphine-6-ß-D-glucuronide into the neonatal guinea pig brain during drug-induced respiratory depression.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther 271:118-124.

Murphey LJ, Olsen GD. 1994b.
Morphine-6-ß-D-glucuronide respiratory pharmacodynamics in the neonatal guinea pig.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther 268:110-116.

Murphey LJ, Olsen GD. 1995.
Developmental change of mu opioid receptors in eonatal guinea pig brain stem.
Dev Brain Res 85:146-148.

Nestler EJ. 1992.
Molecular mechanisms of drug addiction.
J Neurosci 12:2439-2450.

Nestler EJ. 1996.
Under siege: The brain on opiates.
Neuron 16:897-900.

Nestler EJ, Aghajanian GK. 1997.
Molecular and cellular basis of addiction.
Science 278:58-63.

Nestler EJ, Hope BT, Widnell KL. 1993.
Drug addiction: A model for the molecular basis of neural plasticity.
Neuron 11:995-1006.

Olsen, GD, Cline TM, Sommer KM. 1988.
Comparison of chronic morphine and placebo infusion in late gestation fetal lambs: Effect upon survival and breathing movements.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther 241:162-168.

Olsen GD, Norris SR, Sommer KM, Grosso SM. 1989.
Placental permeability for morphine-3-ß-D-glucuronide in the guinea pig.
Placenta 10:83-93.

Olsen GD, Hohimer AR, Mathis MD. 1983.
Cerebral blood flow and metabolism during morphine-induced stimulation of breathing movements in fetal lambs.
Life Sci 33 Suppl 1:751-754.

Ozawa S, Kamiya H, Tsuzuki K. 1998.
Glutamate receptors in the mammalian central nervous system.
Prog Neurobiol 54:581-618.

Özek M, Uresin Y, Gungor M. 2003.
Comparison of the effects of specific and nonspecific inhibition of nitric oxide synthase on morphine analgesia, tolerance and dependence in mice.
Life Sci 72:1943-1951.

Pasternak GW, Kolesnikov YA, Babey AM. 1995.
Perspectives on the N-methyl-D-aspartate/ nitric oxide cascade and opioid tolerance.
Neuropsychopharmacology 13:309-313.

Popik P, Kozela E, Pilc A. 2000.
Selective agonist of group II glutamate metabotropic receptors, LY354740, inhibits tolerance to analgesic effects of morphine in mice.
Br J Pharmacol 130:1425-1431.

Przewlocki R. 2004.
Opioid abuse and brain gene expression.
Eur J Pharmacol 500:331-349.

Rasmussen K. 1991.
Afferent effects on locus coeruleus in opiate withdrawal.
Prog Brain Res 88:207-216.

Rasmussen K, Beitner-Johnson DB, Krystal JH, Aghajanian GK, Nestler EJ. 1990.
Opiate withdrawal and the rat locus coeruleus: Behavioral, electrophysiological, and biochemical correlates.
J Neurosci 10:2308-2317.

Raye JR, Dubin JW, Blechner JN. 1980.
Alterations in fetal metabolism subsequent to maternal morphine administration.
Am J Obstet Gynecol 137:505-508.

Reti IM, Baraban JM. 2003.
Opiate withdrawal induces Narp in the extended amygdala.
Neuropsychopharmacology 9:1606-1613.

Robinson SE, Guo HZ, McDowell KP, Pascua JR, Enters EK. 1991.
Prenatal exposure to methadone affects central cholinergic neuronal activity in the weanling rat.
Brain Res Dev Brain Res 64:183-188.

Sagar, S.M. Sharp, F.R. Curran T. 1988.
Expression of c-Fos protein in brain: Metabolic mapping at the cellular level.
Science 240:1328-1331.

Samson HH, Harris RA. 1992.
Neurobiology of alcohol abuse.
Trends Pharmacol Sci 13:206-211.

Schulteis G, Koob GF. 1996.
Reinforcement processes in opiate addiction: A homeostatic model.
Neurochem Res 21:1437-1454.

Seran GF, Sparber SB. 1988.
Metabolism of methadone by chicken embryos prevents induction of chronic opioid-type dependence after a single injection: Use of osmotic pumps for continuous infusion.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav 30:357-363.

Smith SA, Nagalla SR, Andrews DP, Olsen GD. 1999a.
Morphine regulation of a novel uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl-transferase in guinea pig pups following in utero exposure.
Mol Genet Metabol 68:68-77.

Smith SA, Stupfel JT, Ilias NA, Olsen GD. 2004.
Guinea pig mu opioid receptor: Brainstem expression in the morphine-exposed neonate.
Neurotoxicol Teratol 26:121-129.

Smith SA, Woolsey JB, Olsen GD. 1999b.
Morphine metabolism in the pregnant guinea pig and her pups.
Biol Neonate 76:362-373.

Sokoloff, L. 1981.
Localization of functional activity in the central nervous system by measurement of glucose utilization with radioactive deoxyglucose.
J Cerebral Blood Flow Metab 1:7-36.

Sokoloff, L. 1982.
The radioactive deoxyglucose method: theory, proceduree method: Theory, procedure and applications for the assessment of local glucose utilization in the central nervous system.
In: Agranoff BW, Aprison MH eds. Advances in Neurochemistry. New York: Plenum Press. p 1-82.

Sokoloff L, Reivich M, Kennedy C, Des Rosiers MH, Patlak CS, Pettigrew KD, Sakurada O, Shinohara M.
The (14C)deoxyglucose method for the measurement of local cerebral glucose utilization: Theory, procedure, and normal values in the conscious and anesthetized albino rat.
J Neurochem 28:897-916.

Stornetta RL, Norton FE, Guyenet PG. 1993.
Autonomic areas of rat brain exhibit increased Fos-like immunoreactivity during opiate withdrawal in rats.
Brain Res 624:19-28.

Swann AC, Swann AC, Elsworth JD, Charney DS, Jablons DM, Roth RH, Redmond DE Jr, Maas JW.
Brain catecholamine metabolites and behavior in morphine withdrawal.
Eur J Pharmacol 86:167-175.

Szeto HH, Zhu YS, Amione J, Clare S. 1988.
Prenatal morphine exposure and sleep-wake disturbances in the fetus.
Sleep 11:121-130.

Taylor JR, Elsworth JD, Garcia EJ, Grant SJ, Roth RH, Redmond DE Jr. 1988.
Clonidine infusions into the locus coeruleus attenuate behavioral and neurochemical changes associated with naloxone-precipitated withdrawal.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) 96:121-134.

Toubas PL, Pryor AL, Sheldon RE. 1985.
Effect of morphine on fetal electrocortical activity and breathing movements in fetal sheep.
Dev Pharmacol Ther 8:115-128.

Trujillo KA. 2000.
Are NMDA receptors involved in opiate-induced neural and behavioral plasticity? A review of preclinical studies.
Psychopharmacology 151:121-141.

Umans JG, Szeto HH. 1983.
Effects of opiates on fetal behavioral activity in utero.
Life Sci 33(Suppl 1):639-642.

Umans JG, Szeto HH. 1985.
Precipitated opiate abstinence in utero.
Am J Obstet Gynecol 151:441-444.

Vaccarino AL, Kastin AJ. 2000.
Endogenous opiates: 1999.
Peptides 21:1975-2034.

Vaccarino AL, Kastin AJ. 2001.
Endogenous opiates: 2000.
Peptides 22:2257-2328.

van Ree JM, Gerrits MA, Vanderschuren LJ. 1999.
Opioids, reward and addiction: An encounter of biology, psychology, and medicine.
Pharmacol Rev 51:341-396.

Vandergriff J, Rasmussen K. 1999.
The selective mGlu2/3 receptor agonist LY354740 attenuates morphine-withdrawal-induced activation of locus coeruleus neurons and behavioral signs of morphine withdrawal.
Neuropharmacology 38:217-222.

Vekovischeva OY, Zamanillo D, Echenko O, Seppala T, Uusi-Oukari M, Honkanen A, Seeburg PH, Sprengel R, Korpi ER. 2001.
Morphine-induced dependence and sensitization are altered in mice deficient in AMPA-type glutamate receptor-A subunits.
J Neurosci 21:4451-4459.

Verma IM, Graham WR. 1987.
The fos oncogene.
Adv Cancer Res 49:29-52.

Washburn MS, Numberger M, Zhang S, Dingledine R. 1997.
Differential dependence on GluR2 expression of three characteristic features of AMPA receptors.
J Neurosci 17:9393-9406.

Wei E, Loh HH, Way EL. 1973.
Quantitative aspects of precipitated abstinence in morphine-dependent rats.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther 184:398-404.

Williams JT, Christie MJ, Manzoni O. 2001.
Cellular and synaptic adaptations mediating opioid dependence.
Physiol Rev 81:299-343.

Windh R T, Little P J, Kuhn C M.
The ontogeny of mu opiate tolerance and dependence in the rat: Antinociceptive and biochemical studies.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther 273:1361-374.

Wise RA, Bozarth MA. 1987.
A psychomotor stimulant theory of addiction.
Psychol Rev 94:469-492.

Yohay A-L, Mason A, Duffy M, Flock D, McLemore GL, Northington F, Gauda EB. 2005.
Chronic opiate withdrawal in neonatal mice: Behavioral analysis and c-Fos expression (Abstract).
Soc Pediatr Res Abstr 57:2278.

Zhu H, Barr GA. 2000.
Naltrexone-precipitated morphine withdrawal in infant rat is attenuated by acute administration of NOS inhibitors but not NMDA receptor antagonists.
Psychopharmacology 150:325-336.

Zhu H, Barr GA. 2001.
Inhibition of morphine withdrawal by the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 in rat is age-dependent.
Synapse 40:282-293.

Zhu H, Barr GA. 2004.
The role of AMPA and metabotropic glutamate receptors on morphine withdrawal in infant rats.
Int J Dev Neurosci 22:379-395.